Director of IMT RAS Doctor of Sciences (physics and mathematics) prof. V.V. Aristov
The Institute of Microelectronics Technology Problems and High Purity Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences started to form in 1982--1983 as a department of the Institute of Solid State Physics. On January 1, 1984 it obtained the status of an Institute. The organizer of the new Institute and its first director Ch.V. Kopetskii, a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, lay the foundation for such traditions as dynamism in research work, search for the application of the results in most unexpected fields, and orientation of research work for obtaining final results. These traditions help our Institute to survive in this hard for science time.
The new Institute was set the tasks of carrying fundamental research in the field of physics of microelectronics and properties of micro- and nanoobjects, development of methods for testing and characterization of microstructures, designing new technological processes of microstructurization, and search for and fabrication of new materials for microelectronics. To this end, provisions were made for small-scale production of high-purity materials and technological equipment. It was also planned to build production premises, administrative building and a special building for production of integral circuits in cooperation with the Experimental Plant for Scientific Equipment USSR Academy of Sciences.
These tasks determined the structure of research and production departments. Moreover, some joint laboratories were created together with a plant of the Ministry of electronic industry, research institutes of the Ministry of means of communication, and GIREDMET Institute of the Ministry of nonferrous metallurgy.
IPTM grew quickly and by 1990 its staff increased to 800 people as compared to 320 people in 1984. The Institute established working contacts with many institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow State University named after Lomonosov, plants, and research institutes of Moscow, Leningrad (St-Petersburg), Minsk, Novosibirsk, Erevan, Kiev, Gorki (N.Novgorod), Kishinev, Tomsk, Vyborg, Zelenograd, Fryazino and other towns. Agreements on scientific and technological cooperation were signed with some research institutions in France, Sweden, Great Britain, Bulgaria, GDR, and Hungary.
Research workers of our Institute participated in international and All-Union conferences and symposia. The Institute was the organizer of four All-Union seminars on microlithography and two All-Union conferences on scanning electron microscopy. It participated in organizing Russian-German and Russian-Ukrainian symposia on analytical chemistry, IV International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, Soviet-Japanese Seminar on Grain Boundary, Soviet-French Seminar on X-ray Microscopy, and many others.
The first paper on the work done at the Institute (Kratschmer E., Erko A., Petrashov V.T., and Beneking., Device Fabrication by Nanolithography and Electroplating for Magnetic Quantization Measurements. - Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4 (10), 15 May, 1984, pp. 1011-1013) was presented for publication in January 1984. By 1994, the research workers of the Institute, who are now 145 including 21 doctors and 102 candidates of sciences, published more than 900 works, made over 1000 reports at various conferences, and received 100 inventor's certificates.
In the period 1984 to 1994, people at the Institute presented 16 doctorate and 47 candidate dissertations. Students from some educational institutions such as Moscow Steel and Alloys Institute (department of metallography) Moscow Physico-Technical Institute (department of nanoelectronics), Moscow State University (department of electronics) do their graduation papers at our Institute. The Institute is also involved in the work of the IPTM- FTIAN-MGU scientific-educational center.
This collection of papers presents the major results of the ten-year research work, although it does not cover the whole spectrum of research carried on at the Institute.
Our research was carried on in cooperation with researchers from other institutes both in Russia and abroad. You will find their names among the authors of the papers. In the Introduction I would like to emphasize that workers of our Institute initiated research in two original directions that received world-wide recognition: metallic nano-electronics and Bragg-Fresnel x-ray optics. They also developed original techniques in electron-beam and ion lithography, plasma-chemical etching, and film deposition by CVD, ECR, electron-beam, magnetron and laser sputtering. These techniques make the basis for devices, set-ups and new technologies designed and developed at the Institute now. The research in the field of preparation and analysis of pure substances, started at the Institute of Solid State Physics, is successfully continued. Thus, we successfully cope with the task, in spite of the difficulties of the critical moment.
The structure of the research departments of the Institute was regularly changed and improved: some laboratories were disbanded, new ones were formed. At present, the structure corresponds to the basic research directions of IPTM. These are physics of electronics and technology of heterosystems, physics and technology of elements for functional electronics, special materials for microelectronics and pure substance, x-ray optics and submicron diagnostics.
A great contribution to the formation of research direction is due to candidate of science (physics and mathematics) G.I.Kokhanchik who unfortunately passed away prematurely. Of interest is the experience of the laser processes laboratory under candidate of science (chemistry) Yu.J.Dernovskii, that hived off from the Institute and works on the basis of complete financial independence by implementing and realizing the results of their research work.
Our Institute grew and developed in the years of perestroika when the government paid less attention to research and science developed rather by inertia. Since 1990, financing of research began to decrease and by 1994 dropped to a critically low level of 5% from the financing in 1990. Under these conditions, the development of the Institute, or rather its survival, was due to the efforts of the workers of the management department: former deputy director on general questions Yu.K.Suvorov, chief engineer and deputy director on construction M.I.Verbukh, chief book-keeper G.M.Korotkova and head of planning and economy team R.P.Raikh. Heads of auxiliary services and chief specialists also contributed to the development of the Institute. They are N.B.Serov (chief mechanic), A.P.Pykhtin (former chief power engineer), G.A.Serebryakov (head of the personnel department), G.F.Shvedenkov (head of the 1st department), L.P.Aristova (head of the library), L.I.Korshunova (head of the patent team), T.I.Petrashova (head of secretarial services), A.K.Zamaraev (former head of managerial services), G.I.Sal'nikov (head of the technological production department), Yu.I.Bodryagin (former head of the transport team) and many other workers.
We will always remember people who participated in the organization, formation of the Institute, who contributed to its development and progress but passed away too prematurely: E.T.Babichev, K.P.Borzov, V.I.Zhila, N.P.Zarovnyadnyi, Ch.V.Kopetskii, G.I.Kokhanchik, B.N.Lesovikov, D.A.Lutova, V.V.Makhrov, I.M.Pronman, V.S.Pugachev, F.D.Senchukov, E.M.Tseitlin, S.A.Shuiskov.
The formation of our Institute as an institution of an academic rank would have been impossible without the assistance of vice-president of the USSR AS academician E.P.Velikhov, department of informatics and computer technology of the Academy, encouragement and support of academician K.A.Valiev, planning and economy and scientific organizational departments of the Academy and the department for foreign contacts of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
In spite of unfavorable conditions of the last few years, the Institute and its workers put forwards various socio-economic and social initiatives. Our Institute was one of the first that began decreasing redundant labour by creating small-scale productions and transferring workers their. As far back as 1990, we began the reconstruction of the Institute introducing power-, electricity-, and water-saving technologies. The Institute started special classes of informatics for schoolchildren of our science center. We were among the organizers of the laboratory of environment monitoring to meet the needs of our town. For some years, the Institute sponsors the children scout organization in the Noginskii district.
I believe that in the future we will follow our traditions and keep to our principles, do our best for the honor of Russian science and remain active in various spheres of the life in our country.