Quantum Limits to the Second Law of Thermodynamics
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New Challenges to the Second Law

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Allahverdyan Armen E., Pombo Claudia, Nieuwenhuizen Theo M.
Bath generated work extraction in two-level systems.
AIP Conference Proceedings 643 `Quantum Limits to the Second Law`, November 2002

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
A mathematical theorem as the basis for the second law: Thomson`s formulation applied to equilibrium.
Physica A 305 (2002) 542-552.

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Bath generated work extraction and inversion-free gain in two-level systems

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Breakdown of Landauer bound for information erasure in the quantum regime.
Phys. Rev. E 64, 056117 (2001).

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Comment on "Experimental violations of the second law of thermodynamics for small systems and short timescales"

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Extraction of work form a single thermal bath in quantum regime.
Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 1799-1802 (2000)

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Invalidity of the Landauer inequality for information erasure in the quantum regime.

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Mean-field theory of quantum brownian motion.

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
On testing the violation of the Clausius inequality in nanoscale electric circuits.

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Quantum Brownian motion and its conflict with the second law.
AIP Conference Proceedings 643 `Quantum Limits to the Second Law`, D.P. Sheehan Eds., November 2002

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Reply on Comment on ``Extraction of work from a single thermal bath in the quantum regime``

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Statistical thermodynamics of quantum Brownian motion: Birth of perpetuum mobile of the second kind.
Phys. Rev. E 66, 036102 (2002)

Allahverdyan, A.E. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Steady adiabatic state: Its thermodynamics, entropy production, energy dissipation, and violation of Onsager relations.
Phys. Rev. E 62 845-850 (2000).

Allahverdyan, A.E. Balian, R. and Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
Thomson`s formulation of the second law: an exact theorem and limits of its validity.
AIP Conference Proceedings 643 `Quantum Limits to the Second Law`, D.P. Sheehan Eds., November 2002

Aristov V.V. and Nikulov A.V.
NANO-TECHNOLOGY ALLOWS TO MAKE A POWER SOURCE TRANSFORMING HEAT ENERGY TO ELECTRIC ENERGY.
reported at General Assembly and Fourth APAM Topical Seminar "Materials for Nontraditional System of Energy Generation, Storage and Saving", Seoul, Korea, September 3-5, 2000

Aristov V.V. and Nikulov A.V.
Quantum Power Source. Putting in Order of a Brownian Motion without Maxwell`s Demon
the Proceedings of SPIE, 2003, vol. 5128 "Quantum informatics", pp. 148-156

Berger J.
The Fight Against the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
Physics Essays 7 (1994) 281-296

Berger Jorge
Noise rectification by superconducting loop with two weak links

We consider a superconducting loop with two weak links that encloses a magnetic flux, at a temperature close to critical. The weak links are unequal and are treated as Josephson junctions with non-sinusoidal phase dependence. The critical currents of these junctions undergo large fluctuations, that may eventually break their superconductivity. As a consequence of these fluctuations and of the resistive noise in the junctions, the average dc voltage does not vanish. This result is qualitatively similar to that of a recent experiment.

Capek V.
Zeroth and Second Laws of Thermodynamics Simultaneously Questioned in the Quantum Microworld
Eur.Phys.J. B 25, 101-113 (2002)
http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0012056

Capek V. and Frege, O.
Dynamical trapping of particles as a challenge to statistical thermodynamics.
Czech. J. Phys. 50 405-423 (2000).

Capek, V.
Isothermal Maxwell daemon and active binding of pairs of particles.
J. Phys. A: Math. Gen 30 5245-5258 (1997).

Capek, V.
Isothermal Maxwell daemon.
Czech. J. Phys. 47 845-849 (1997).

Capek, V.
Isothermal Maxwell daemon: swing (fish-trap) model of particle pumping.
Czech. J. Phys. 48 879-901 (1998).

Capek, V.
Isothermal Maxwell demon as a quantum ``sewing machine.``
Phys. Rev. E 57 3846-3852 (1998).

Capek, V.
Possible spontaneous energy flow against a temperature step.

Capek, V.
Twilight of a dogma of statistical thermodynamics.
Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 355 13-23 (2001).

Capek, V. and Bok, J.
A thought construction of working perpetuum mobile of the second kind.
reported at MECO 23, April 27-29, 1998, ICTP, Trieste, Italy Czeck J. Phys. 49 1645-1652 (1999)

Capek, V. and Bok, J.
Isothermal maxwell daemon: numerical results in a simplified model.
J. Phys. A: Math Gen 31 8745-8756 (1998).

Capek, V. and Bok, J.
Langevin approach to the Porto system.

Capek, V. and Bok, J.
Stationary flows in quantum dissipative closed circuits as a challenge to thermodynamics.

Capek, V. and J. Bok
A model of spontaneous generation of population inversion in open quantum systems.
Chem. Phys. 277, 131 (2002).

Capek, V. and J. Bok
Violation of the second law of thermodynamic in the quantum microworld.
Physica A 290 379-401 (2001)

Capek, V. and Mancal, T.
Isothermal Maxwell daemon as a molecular rectifier.
Europhys. Lett. 48 (4) 365-371 (1999).

Capek, V. and Sheehan, D.P.
Quantum mechanical model of a plasma system; a challenge to the second law of thermodynamics.
Physica A 304 461-479 (2002).

Capek, V. and Tributsch, H.
Particle (electron, proton) transfer and self-organization in active thermodynamic reservoirs.
J. Phys. Chem. B 103 3711-3719 (1999).

Daniel P. Sheehan, Eds.
Proceedings of First International Conference on Quantum Limits to the Second Law

The Second Law of Thermodynamics (the law of "increasing disorder") is fundamental to all the sciences and is considered inviolable by the general scientific community. This volume represents the first book in an emerging renaissance of second law studies. It covers the first international conference in more than 100 years - and perhaps, ever - to explore challenges to the second law`s absolute status and to many unresolved foundational issues surrounding it. These collected papers represent work by more than 100 researchers from over 25 countries, many of whom are prominent in the fields of classical and quantum statistical thermodynamics. Much of the research is original and, if verified by the scientific community, could lead to paradigm shifts in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering.

published by Americal Institute of Physics, November 2002

DenurJack
Time evolution of a modified Feynman ratchet with velocity-dependent fluctuations and the second law of thermodynamic

Dubonos S.V., Kuznetsov V.I., Zhilyaev I.N., Nikulov A.V., Firsov A.A.
Induction of dc voltage, proportional to the persistent current, by external ac current on system of inhomogeneous superconducting loops

A dc voltage induced by an external ac current is observed in system of asymmetric mesoscopic superconducting loops. The value and sign of this dc voltage, like the one of the persistent current, depend in a periodical way on a magnetic field with period corresponded to the flux quantum within the loop. The amplitude of the oscillations does not depend on the frequency of the external ac current (in the investigated region 100 Hz - 1 MHz) and depends on its amplitude. The latter dependence is not monotonous. The observed phenomenon of rectification is interpreted as a consequence of a dynamic resistive state induced by superposition of the external current and the persistent current. It is shown that the dc voltage can be added in system of loops connected in series: the dc voltage oscillations with amplitude up to 0.00001 V were observed in single loop, up to 0.00004 V in a system of 3 loops and up to 0.0003 V in a system of 20 loops.

JETP Lett. 77, 371 (2003)

Dubonos, S.V., Kuznetsov, V.I. and A.V. Nikulov
Observation of dc voltage on segments of an inhomogeneous superconducting loop.

Dubonos, S.V., Kuznetsov, V.I. and A.V. Nikulov
Segment of an inhomogeneous mesoscopic loop as a dc power source.
in Proceedings of 10th International Symposium "NANOSTRUCTURES: Physics and Technology" St Petersburg: Ioffe Institute, 2002, pp. 350-353

Duncan Todd L.
Why Do We Believe in the Second Law?
AIP Conference Proceedings 643 `Quantum Limits to the Second Law`, D.P. Sheehan Eds., November 2002

Gordon, L.G.M.
Brownian movement and microscopic irreversibility.
Found. Phys. 11 103-113 (1981).

Gordon, L.G.M.
Maxwell`s demon and detailed balancing.
Found. Phys. 13 989-997 (1983).

Gordon, L.G.M.
The Molecular-Kinetic Theory and the Second Law.
J. of Colloid and Interface Science, 162, 512, (1994)

Keefe P.D.
COHERENT MAGNETO-CALORIC EFFECT HEAT ENGINE AND PROCESS CYCLE.

Liboff, R.L.
Maxwell`s demon and the second law of thermodynamics.
Found. Phys. Lett. 10 89-92 (1997).

Nikulov A.V.
Reply to Comment on "Quantum Force in a Superconductor"

A reply is made to Comment by D.P.Sheehan in which he takes notice that the quantum force introduced in my earlier paper A.V.Nikulov, Phys. Rev. B 64, 012505 (2001) challenges to the absolute status of the second law of thermodynamics. It is shown that the introduction of the quantum force explains only an experimental challenge to the second law. The observation of the persistent current at non-zero resistance R > 0 is experimental evidence of violation of the postulate saving the second law in the beginning of the 20 century. According to this postulate any Brownian motion is absolutely random whereas the persistent current at R > 0 is a regulated Brownian motion.

rejected by Phys.Rev.B

Nikulov A.V.
Why the persistent power can be observed in mesoscopic quantum system

It is shown that one of consequences of basic principle of quantum mechanics at the mesoscopic level is violation of the second law of thermodynamics and that an experimental evidence of this violation was obtained long ago.

Nikulov, A.V.
A Possibility of Entropy Decrease in a Mesoscopic Superconducting Ring.

Nikulov, A.V.
A superconducting mesoscopic ring as direct- current generator.
reported at NATO ASI "Quantum Mesoscopic Phenomena and Mesoscopic Devices in Microelectronics" Ankara/Antalya, Turkey, June 13-25, 1999

Nikulov, A.V.
A system of mesoscopic superconducting rings as a microrefrigerator.
reported at the Symposium on Micro- and Nanocryogenics, Jyvaskyla, Finland, August 1-3, 1999

Nikulov, A.V.
About Perpetuum Mobile without Emotions.

Nikulov, A.V.
One of Possible Applications of High-Tc Superconductors.
reported at NATO Advanced Research Workshop "SUPERMATerials", Giens, France, September 19-23, 1999

Nikulov, A.V.
Quantum Brownian motion in nanostructures. Challenge of the second law of thermodynamics.
The paper declined for the presentation at International Symposium "NANOSTRUCTURES: Physics and Technology" St Petersburg 17-21 June 2002

Nikulov, A.V.
Quantum force in a superconductor.
Phys. Rev. B 64 012505, (2001)

Nikulov, A.V.
Transformation of Thernal Energy in Electric Energy in an Inhomogeneous Superconducting Ring.
reported at NATO ARW "Symmetry and Pairing in Superconductors", Yalta, Ukraina, April 28 - May 2, 1998

Nikulov, A.V.
Violation of the second thermodynamic law in a superconducting ring.
reported at XXII International Conference on Low Temperature Physics, Helsinki, Finland, August 4-11, 1999

Nikulov, A.V. and Zhilyaev, I.N.
The Little-Parks effect in an inhomogeneous superconducting ring.
J. Low Temp. Phys. 112, 227-235 (1998)

Nikulov, A.V. and Zhilyaev, I.N.
VOLTAGE IN A INHOMOGENEOUS HTSC RING NEAR Tc.
reported at NATO Advanced Research Workshop MSU-HTSC V, Moscow, Russia, March 24-29, 1998

Novotny Tomas
On apparent breaking the second law of thermodynamics in quantum transport studies.
Europhys. Lett., 59 (5), pp. 648-654 (2002)

Sheehan D.P., Glick J., Duncan T., Langton J.A., Gagliardi M.J. and Tobe R.
Phase Space Portraits of an Unresolved Gravitational Maxwell Demon.
Found. Physics 32, 441-462 (2002).

Sheehan, D.P.
A paradox involving the second law of thermodynamics.
Phys. Plasmas 2 1893-1898 (1995).

Sheehan, D.P.
Another paradox involving the second law of thermodynamics.
Phys. Plasmas 3 104-110 (1996).

Sheehan, D.P.
Dynamically-maintained, steady-state pressure gradients.
Phys. Rev. E 57 6660-6666 (1998).

Sheehan, D.P.
Four paradoxes involving the second law of thermodynamics.
J. Sci. Explor. 12 303-314 (1998).

Sheehan, D.P.
Reply to ``Comment on `Dynamically maintained steady- state pressure gradients.``
Phys. Rev. E 61 4662-4665 (2000).

Sheehan, D.P.
Response to comment on "A paradox involving the second law of thermodynamics."
Phys. Plasmas 3 706 (1996).

Sheehan, D.P.
The second law and chemically-induced, steady-state pressure gradients: controversy, corroboration and caveats.
Phys. Lett. A 280 185-190 (2001).

Sheehan, D.P. and J.D. Means
Minimum requirement for second law violation: a paradox revisited.
Phys. Plasmas 5 2469-2471 (1998).

Sheehan, D.P., J. Glick,
Gravitationally-induced, dynamically-maintained, steady-state pressure gradients.
Phys. Script. 61, 635-640 (2000).

Sheehan, D.P., J. Glick, J.D. Means
Steady-state work by an asymmetrically inelastic gravitator in a gas: a second law paradox.
Foundations of Physics 30 1227-1256 (2000).

Valev Pentcho
CAN CAPACITORS FUNCTION AS ISOTHERMAL HEAT ENGINES?

Weiss P.
Breaking the Law: Can quantum mechanics + thermodynamics = perpetual motion?
Science News, Vol. 158, p.234. (2000)

Zaslavsky, G.M.
From Hamiltonian chaos to Maxwell`s demon.
Chaos 5 653-661 (1995).

Zaslavsky, G.M. and Edelman, M.
Maxwell`s demon as a dynamical model.
Phys. Rev. E 56 5310-5320 (1997).

Preface
Chernogolovka, IMT RAS